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香饽饽or鸡肋 儿童涂料标准化的必要性

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 宣城市多部门联手综合整治宣城东门建材市场 (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

“二孩”带动儿童家具市场消费改变

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

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5.英国人喜欢冷幽默:这就是为什么所有出租的自行车都刻着同一家银行的名字,而这家银行正因为固定利率而在被调查阶段。他们也许觉得这很有趣吧。
时间管理类
adj. 紧张的,压力重的
总部位于广东的房地产开发企业碧桂园集团现年35岁的女继承人杨惠妍以485亿元的身家紧随其后。
10.Fears of Another Tsunami

Lufax, which started four years ago has emerged as the leader due to innovative credit rating techniques.
The requirements come from one of two newly issued regulations over the taxi and online ride-hailing services by China's transportation authority. The regulations will take effect in October and November respectively.
其他人将想方设法利用技术来帮助人们减少上网时间。谷歌(Google)前雇员特里斯坦哈里斯(Tristan Harris)发起的“时光莫虚度”(Time Well Spent)运动正在吸引人气,该运动鼓励设计者理解他们所控制的微妙的心理力量,以解决其所称的“数字注意力危机”。据Recode报道,曾经在Pinterest和Facebook工作的蒂姆肯德尔(Tim Kendall),计划成立一家专注于对抗设备上瘾的初创公司。
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This story pulls directly from the real Bling Ring gang , whose burglaries racked up $3 million over the span of ten months in 2008. All of the celebrities listed in the movie were real victims of this group, who claim to have been motivated by the "cultural obsession" surrounding celebrities' personal lives. Whatever their motives, the Bling Ring is a good reminder to take a step back from the media every once in a while.

Footnotes

  • 河北将创建600个国家森林乡村
  • 热门的新兴市场基准债券和股票的价格已经下降,同时根据代表全球大型金融公司的组织——国际金融研究所(Institute for International Finance)的数据,来自海外投资者的净流入已经从2014年的2850亿美元降至今年的660亿美元。

让爱情多姿多彩:荷兰培育出彩虹玫瑰(图)
GMAT平均分:700分
That cold was drawn into the interior of the country by a loop in a current called the jet stream that allowed Arctic air to spill southward. But an offsetting kink allowed unusually warm tropical air to settle over the West, large parts of Alaska and much of the Arctic.
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新疆建材工业结构日趋优化

References

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