The 10 Biggest Revelations From Edward Snowden's Leaks

Former intelligence contractor Edward Snowden poses for a photo during an interview in an undisclosed location in December 2013 in Moscow, Russia.
Former intelligence contractor Edward Snowden poses for a photo during an interview in an undisclosed location in December 2013 in Moscow, Russia.
Image: Barton Gellman/Getty Images

One year ago, the Guardian published its first bombshell story based on leaked top-secret documents showing that the National Security Agency was spying on American citizens.

At the time, journalist Glenn Greenwald and the Guardian never mentioned that they had a treasure trove of other NSA documents, nor that they came from one person. Then three days later, the source surprisingly unmasked himself: His name was Edward Snowden.

Journalist Glenn Greenwald and the Guardian won a Pulitzer Prize for reporting based on Snowden's information.

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That even at a lower profit margin (say, 40%) and a 1/3 cannibalization rate (i.e. customers buy one third fewer full-priced iPhones), the cheaper iPhone would increase Apple'srevenue and gross profits (see her spreadsheet above).
Mr Ravenscroft believes he would have had a narrower perspective if he had become a management consultant. Teaching also helped him develop a willingness to take risks — the hard way. “If you stand in front of 30 teenagers who won’t hold back when you’re doing something wrong it makes you willing to try things.”
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I am calling this the Wan Long prize, after the Chinese meat magnate who once uttered the clearest sentence ever spoken by a CEO: “What I do is kill pigs and sell meat.” Mr Wan will surely approve of my winner, a BNSF railway executive who told a conference: “We move stuff from one place to another.”

1. Secret court orders allow NSA to sweep up Americans' phone records

The very first story revealed that Verizon had been providing the NSA with virtually all of its customers' phone records. It soon was revealed that it wasn't just Verizon, but 深圳一男子一房多卖 重复抵押597套房骗款数亿元 in America.

This revelation is still one of the most controversial ones. Privacy advocates have challenged the legality of the program in court, and one Judge deemed the program unconstitutional and "almost Orwellian," while another one ruled it legal.

The uproar caused by this first story has led President Barack Obama to endorse a reform to the program, and the House of Representatives to pass the first law that tries to change it.

2. PRISM

The existence of PRISM was the second NSA bombshell, coming less than 24 hours after the first one. Initially, reports described PRISM as the NSA's program to directly access the servers of U.S tech giants like Google, Facebook, Microsoft and Apple, among others.

“人才新政”须防跑偏

PRISM, we soon learned, was less less evil than first thought. In reality, the NSA doesn't have direct access to the servers, but can request user data from the companies, which are compelled by law to comply.

PRISM was perhaps as controversial as the first NSA scoop, prompting technology companies to first deny any knowledge of it, then later fight for the right to be more transparent about government data requests. The companies ended up partially winning that fight, getting the government to ease some restrictions and allow for more transparency.

3. Britain's version of the NSA taps fiber optic cables around the world

The report shows that compared with that in 2015, the percentage of graduates to start up business are significantly decreased from 6.3% to 3.1% in 2016.
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尽管与普通的开瓶器并无二致,但它拥有精良的设计,是由不锈钢和实木制成的。

Tempora is one of the key NSA/GCHQ programs, allowing the spy agencies to collect vasts troves of data, but for some reason, it has sometimes been overlooked. After a couple of months from the Tempora revelation, a German newspaper revealed the names of the companies that collaborate with the GCHQ in the Tempora program: Verizon Business, British Telecommunications, Vodafone Cable, Global Crossing, Level 3, Viatel and Interoute.

4. NSA spies on foreign countries and world leaders

U.S. President Barack Obama, right, and German Chancellor Angela Merkel are seated together at a G7 dinner in Brussels, on June 4. Their relationship has been tense since reports revealed that the NSA tapped Merkel's phone.

谈到他想让他们的关系“正式化”的愿望,拉格菲尔德曾表示:“目前还没有人类和动物结婚的……我从未想过我会像这样爱上一只猫咪。
年少轻狂时,我们事事都乐于尝试。因为觉得自己一无所有而不惧怕失去。也正因如此,我们有时会在不知不觉中走上一条不归路。   WE want to try a little of everything
其中包括“qwerty”(键盘字母顺序,排名第4)、“admin”(管理员,排名第11)和“login”(登录,排名第14)。

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本文作者为卡内基国际和平基金会(Carnegie Endowment)高级研究员、世界银行(World Bank)中国业务局前局长,译者/何黎
So, yeah, if this edition of the World Cup seems a bit more exciting than you're used to, this is a big reason why.

The German newsweekly Der Spiegel revealed that the NSA targets at least 122 world leaders.

Other stories over the past years have named specific targets like German Chancellor Angela Merkel, Brazil's President Dilma Roussef, and Mexico's former President Felipe Calderon, the French Foreign Ministry, as well as leaders at the 2010 G8 and G20 summits in Toronto.

5. XKeyscore, the program that sees everything

XKeyscore is a tool the NSA uses to search "nearly everything a user does on the Internet" through data it intercepts across the world. In leaked documents, the NSA describes it as the "widest-reaching" system to search through Internet data.

6. NSA efforts to crack encryption and undermine Internet security

Encryption makes data flowing through the Internet unreadable to hackers and spies, making the NSA's surveillance programs less useful. What's the point of tapping fiber optic cables if the data flowing through them is unreadable? That's why the NSA has a developed a 渝深再出楼市政策 多地调控注重“查漏补缺” to circumvent widely used web encryption technologies.

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中国的全国居民消费价格指数(CPI)和工业生产者出厂价格指数(PPI)仍很温和或处于收缩区间,但上月都出现了些许回升迹象。
Make your classes your highest priority.
AFI Movies of the Year

东莞:首付仅三成小别墅成新宠

英国整体排名第三。“强国”排名第四,“文化影响力”排名第五。
British schools outperform the French on both new criteria. Warwick Business School, the top UK school for career progress, is second overall for the criterion, 30 places above the first French school, HEC Paris. Alumni from UK schools also see a higher increase between their first salary after graduation and now, at 62 per cent versus 45 per cent. However, UK school alumni still have a lower salary on average than their counterparts who studied in France, at $55,000 versus $64,000.
In the first 10 months of the year, Chinese exports to the US were up 5.2 per cent from the same period in 2014, while exports to countries in Asean were up 3.7 per cent, according to Chinese customs figures.
Manufacturer of advanced and quality products
1950年巴西首次承办世界杯,由于要在家照顾卧病在床的母亲,巴西球迷朱蒂尔·桑乔·贝尔蒙特错过了巴西与乌拉圭的决赛。六十四年过后,贝尔蒙特用原版未曾使用的决赛门票换取了三张本届世界杯决赛的入场券。
Thirty Seconds of Mars, who are fronted by American actor Jared Leto, took home the Best Alternative award, which also saw Lana Del Rey, Lorde, The XX and Imagine.
That partly explains why actuaries have the best job in the United States, according to a new survey by CareerCast.com that will be released Tuesday. Biomedical engineer was No. 2 and software engineer, the top job of 2012, came in at No.3. Careers that ranked the lowest included enlisted military personnel, lumberjack and newspaper reporter.
Nine provincial-level regions' GDP exceeded 3 trillion yuan in 2016, three more than the year before. The number of provincial-level areas with GDP surpassing 1 trillion yuan in 2016 remained 25.
Everyone else is trying to win. The Mavericks, all of 3-13, proudly announced that they won't tank. Yet, this is expected to be one of the best NBA drafts in years, with Markelle Fultz, Jayson Tatum, Lonzo Ball, Josh Jackson, Harry Giles, OG Anunoby, Ivan Rabb ... the list goes on!

7. NSA elite hacking team techniques revealed

The NSA has at its disposal an elite hacker team codenamed "Tailored Access Operations" (TAO) that hacks into computers worldwide, infects them with malware and does the dirty job when other surveillance tactics fail.

Der Spiegel, which detailed TAO's secrets, labelled it as "a squad of plumbers that can be called in when normal access to a target is blocked." But they can probably be best described as the NSA's black bag operations team.

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Marvel created superhero Blue Ear, who wears a hearing aid, after a little boy refused to wear one because "superheroes don’t wear hearing aids".
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8. NSA cracks Google and Yahoo data center links

When bulk collection or PRISM fails, the NSA had other tricks up its sleeve: It could infiltrate links connecting Yahoo and Google data centers, behind the companies' backs.

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This story truly enraged the tech companies, which reacted with much more fury than before. Google and Yahoo announced plans to strengthen and encrypt those links to avoid this kind of surveillance, and a Google security employee even said on his Google+ account what many others must have thought privately: "Fuck these guys."

9. NSA collects text messages

It's not just about Internet data though. The NSA, following its unofficial motto of "collecting it all," intercepts 200 million text messages every day worldwide through a program called Dishfire.

The online notice about the retraction lists all 107 articles and 524 authors, nearly all of whom are clinical cancer specialists from China. The hospitals named are all top public institutions.
It was addressed to Clark C Moore, who has since changed his name to Muhammad Siddeeq, making it hard to trace him.

Other documents also revealed that the NSA can "easily" crack cellphone encryption, allowing the agency to more easily decode and access the content of intercepted calls and text messages.

10. NSA intercepts all phone calls in two countries

The NSA intercepts and stores all phone calls made in the Bahamas and Afghanistan through a program called MYSTIC, which has its own snazzy logo.

The Bahamas was revealed by The Intercept, Greenwald's new website, while the second was revealed by WikiLeaks, which protested The Intercept's decision to withhold the second country's name.

这次奠基之战借鉴了查克·温柏和拳王阿里的比赛,这个无名小卒温柏成了在阿里的职业生涯中击倒过他的区区4人之一。和电影里一样,温柏与阿里打了15回合,尽管他看起来(感觉也)像被卡车撞过。虽然他和洛奇最后都被对手技术性击倒,但温柏胜在启发了史泰龙塑造这个了不起的角色。

Bonus: Edward Snowden's first in-person interview with an American news outlet

(H/T to the site Free Snowden, which has an extensive and detailed list of all the NSA revelations.)